Selectivity descriptors for the direct hydrogenation of CO2 to hydrocarbons during zeolite-mediated bifunctional catalysis
A. Ramirez, X. Gong, M. Caglayan, S.A. Nastase, E. Abou-Hamad, L. Gevers, L. Cavallo, A. Dutta Chowdhury, and J. Gascon. Nature Commun. 12 (2021) 5914. Selectivity descriptors for the direct hydrogenation of CO2 to hydrocarbons during zeolite-mediated bifunctional catalysis
Cascade processes are gaining momentum in heterogeneous catalysis. The combination of several catalytic solids within one reactor has shown great promise for the one-step valorization of C1-feedstocks. The combination of metal-based catalysts and zeolites in the gas phase hydrogenation of CO2 leads to a large degree of product selectivity control, defined mainly by zeolites. However, a great deal of mechanistic understanding remains unclear: metal-based catalysts usually lead to complex product compositions that may result in unexpected zeolite reactivity. Here we present an in-depth multivariate analysis of the chemistry involved in eight different zeolite topologies when combined with a highly active Fe-based catalyst in the hydrogenation of CO2 to olefins, aromatics, and paraffins. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy and computational analysis demonstrate that the hybrid nature of the active zeolite catalyst and its preferred CO2-derived reaction intermediates (CO/ester/ketone/hydrocarbons, i.e., inorganic-organic supramolecular reactive centers), along with 10 MR-zeolite topology, act as descriptors governing the ultimate product selectivity.