A series of Fe-Ti mixed oxide model catalysts containing different Ti/Fe ratios were synthesized and applied as catalysts for the High Temperature Fischer-Tropsch reaction (HTFTS). XRD, H2-TPR and in situ Mössbauer and XAFS spectroscopy were applied to evaluate the role of Ti on the physical and chemical properties of Fe within the mixed metal oxide. It was observed that the Ti/Fe ratio determines the relative amounts of hematite, pseudobrookite, and anatase in the starting materials. The interplay between these phases is responsible for the HTFTS catalytic performance. Our results demonstrate that the presence of pseudobrookite: i) enhances the dispersion of iron; ii) mediates and controls the reduction and carburization degree during the transformation of Fe (III) species to carbides upon activation, and iii) increases the stability under HTFTS conditions by minimizing the re-oxidation of iron carbides. Highest catalytic activity and stability is achieved for the material with Ti/Fe ratio of 1/2.1.